Everybody is born different, some are born perfectly healthy and remain healthy for the rest of their lives, some are born with certain neuromuscular disorders, while some may develop degenerative disorders. Stem Cell Therapy (SCT) is the treatment of various disorders, non-serious to life threatening, by using stem cells. These stem cells can be procured from a lot of different sources and used to potentially treat more than 80 disorders, including neuromuscular and degenerative disorders.
Hematopoietic disorders (eg leukaemia, thallassemia, aplastic anemia, MDS, sickle cell anemia, storage disorders etc.) affect the bone marrow and manifest with various systemic complications. Stem cells from a donor (either from cord blood or bone marrow) are known to reconstitute the defective bone marrow and permanently overcome the disorder.
Degenerative disorders arise from degeneration or wear and tear of bone, cartilage, muscle, fat or any other tissue, cell or organ. This could occur due to a variety of reasons, but it's normally the process known as aging, or 'getting old' that is the biggest cause. The disorders have a slow and insidious onset but once contracted, can be long-standing, pain-staking and lifelong. These disorders can affect any organ of the body. The common degenerative disorders are diabetes, osteoarthritis, stroke, chronic renal failure, congestive cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease etc.
Stem cell treatments are a type of intervention strategy that introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury.
The ability of Stem Cells to self‐renew offers significant potential for generation of tissues that can potentially replace diseased and damaged areas in the body, with minimal risk of rejection and side effects.
Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. Stem cells may also be used to treat brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
Stem cell therapies may serve as potential treatments for cancer as current cancer treatments are designed to kill cancer cells however The stem cells neither differentiated nor turned tumorigenic. Essentially, chemotherapy is used to completely destroy the patients own lymphocytes, and stem cells injected, eventually replacing the immune system of the patient with that of the healthy donor.
Multipotent isolated adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood were injected into the damaged part of the spinal cord of a patient suffering from a spinal cord injury and following the procedure, she could walk on her own, without difficulty. The observed recovery was associated with differentiation of transplanted cells into new neurons and oligodendrocytes the latter of which forms the myelin sheath around axons of the central nervous system, thus insulating neural impulses and facilitating communication with the brain.
Several clinical trials targeting heart disease have shown that adult stem cell therapy is safe, effective, and equally efficient in treating old and recent infarcts Stem cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells Possible mechanisms of recovery include:
The immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism. Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red blood cell growth.
Act by activating already existing stem cells on the scalp. Later treatments may be able to simply signal follicle stem cells to give off chemical signals to nearby follicle cells which have shrunk during the aging process, which in turn respond to these signals by regenerating and once again making healthy hair.
Stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab into turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to grow within two months. It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it.
Diabetes patients lose the function of insulin producing beta cells within the pancreas. Human embryonic stem cells may be grown in cell culture and stimulated to form insulin producing cells that can be transplanted into the patient. However, clinical success is highly dependent on the development of the following procedures:
Crystal Hospital Building, Near Rama Krishna Hotel, Maratha Colony, Wamanrao Sawant Road,
Dahisar (East), Mumbai-400068, India.